Monthly Archives: June 2010

Gripped by the World Cup?

I’m all into the World Cup!

Whereas many of my friends growing up felt that soccer (futbol) was less of a sport that our American football, baseball or basketball, I never really cared enough to have an opinion of it.  My late nephew, Gray Griffin, was a marvelous soccer player who was captain of the US 16-17 year olds when they played in that World Cup in Trinidad in the late 1990s.  (He likely would have been on the USA’s World Cup team this year.)  I liked soccer because I loved him, but I never really studied the intricacies of the game. 

When Trinidad & Tobago made it to the World Cup in 2006, I watched every minute of the “Soca Warriors” when they played.  The entire nation of Trinidad and Tobago basically shut down when they qualified for those games for the first time.  I began to ‘get it.’ 

Now?  Now, I’m all in–vuvuzelas and all.  Why?  Some of the reasons are from a sports fan’s point of view, some are from a more missional point of view.

Sports Fan

  1. Their athleticism is phenomenal.  There is no stoppage of action.  These men are in constant motion, and I marvel at what good shape they are in. 
  2. The time doesn’t stop.  A New York Times article last year noted that in a three-hour professional (American) football game, there is a grand total of eleven minutes of action.  Not with soccer.  The game time does not stop.  Even if there is a stoppage in play, the clock keeps moving.  I like that.
  3. The low scores do not bother me.  Some of my favorite games in baseball are “pitcher’s duels” which end 1-0 or 2-1.  Even some of the best football games are 14-7 or 21-14.  Same with soccer.  One goal equals one point, not seven—but the goals are still the same amount.  Typical American excess says more is better.   In the words of George Gershwin, “It ain’t necessarily so.”


Missional Point of View

    1. I enjoy seeing various cultures on the world stage.  Paraguay, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico.  South Africa, Ghana, Ivory Coast.  The Netherlands, France, Italy, Spain.  North Korea, South Korea, Japan, Australia.  This helps break me out of my mentality that the United States of America is all there is and the only culture of consequence.  Not so.  All of these nations have a storied history, culture—and a shared need for the gospel.
    2. Expectations are key.  Brazil, Italy, France, and Spain would all be disappointed if they did not win or at least make it to the “final four.”  Landon Donovan of the USA said that if they may it out of their initial group (which they did), that would be a success.  Last World Cup, Trinidad and Tobago scored two points in their group and made a respectable showing, and they arrived back in Port of Spain heroes.  What are our expectations with our organizations, especially our churches—to be Spirit-filled churches violently pursuing the Great Commission, or ones with low expectations just happy to keep the doors open one more Sunday?  I pray that we would all have a Brazil-like mentality, expecting to ‘win,’ if you will. 
    3. Good things happen when you storm the goal.  At times, the play unfolds to where either from a corner kick, penalty kick, or just in the flow of the game that a kick comes in toward the box and numerous players converge to try and score a goal.  It reminded me of an expression that some Christians are so fired up that they would storm hell with a water pistol.  Would that we all be on fire and charge the goal of the Great Commission in that way.

What about you?  Are you ‘in to’ the World Cup?

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Why I Cannot Pastor My Church Anymore (Part I)

(This sermon was preached on Sunday, May 30, 2010 at Boone’s Creek Baptist Church, Lexington, Kentucky.)

I had the privilege of marrying and introducing Mr. and Mrs. Clay and Melissa Tabor as a newly married couple at the Pennyrile State Park over in Dawson Springs, Kentucky. With the wedding starting at 1:30 pm, I had a chance to do some sightseeing in a beautiful part of the state. One of the places I went was to the birthplace of Jefferson Davis.

He had an interesting life. Born in Kentucky, he graduated from West Point in 1828, was married to Zachary Taylor’s daughter, became a senator from Mississippi as well as President Franklin Pierce’s Secretary of War. But he’s most known for being a reluctant president of the Confederate States of America during her short life from 1861-1865. He struggled with the various ventures in his life and died in 1889 at the age of 81.

This Memorial Day weekend, we remember and honor the many men who gave their lives for their country. Not all have agreed (as we certainly saw in the Civil War). But as I was at Jefferson Davis’ birthplace, I truly wondered, “How incredible are those made in the image of God who feel so strongly to give their lives for a cause!”

As Christians, God has called all of us to lay down our lives for a cause. This cause is not political in nature (although politicians hijack various areas of Scripture, and thus we as Kingdom people must address those issues), not is it exclusively denominational in nature (although God may use those structures to do so). It is both spiritual and physical in nature. It is spiritual in that we are being led by the great Author of the cause of Christianity, and we use our physical Temples to accomplish those spiritual means as God leads.

Over the past few weeks, it has become more and more clear to me that I cannot pastor this church any longer. Matthew Perry cannot be the point person of this church. Now, before you get too shocked, please understand that I am not resigning. I do not feel led in that direction, I have no yearning to go to another church, I’m not being courted by another church. God has called me here, He’s doing some marvelous things in our sight, and I would like to see through what He’s started here.

No, what I mean is that Jesus is and must be the pastor/shepherd of this church. Have you ever wondered what it would really look like if Jesus was truly the heartbeat of this church? Would it look any different?

In Matthew 16:18, Jesus utters a five-word phrase that is absolutely stunning. He said, “I will build my church.” Over the years, I’ve heard statements such as “This church doesn’t feel like ours anymore with all these changes.” If it’s any consolation, this church never belonged to you or to any of us. Boone’s Creek Baptist Church belongs to the Lord Jesus Christ, and He must be the one to lead and shepherd this church.

What does this mean?

First, this means that Jesus will personally build His church.

Jesus says, “I will build my church.” Jesus here is involved, personally tending to a church which is known by many things: his body, his building, his bride, among other descriptions. In other words, Jesus is working from the top down.

Violinists play all sorts of models of violins, but playing a rare and priceless Stradivarius is a rare and priceless act. Those who know how to play can tell the difference between a fake and the real thing. Same with Ferraris and Corvettes. In fact, some of you have Bibles where some are Genuine Leather, others are Bonded Leather—they are both leather, but you can tell the difference between the true product and the imitation.

One should be able to tell the difference between a church built by Christ and one built by man. Just as man cannot live by bread alone, so too cannot church live on man-made business principles or programs alone. We live on every word that proceeds from the mouth of God. Jesus personally builds His church by His Word and for His glory.

Our natural inclination is to view the church with our own eyes, and then assume that our view is God’s view. But consider the word ‘church.’ The word used for ‘church’ is the word ‘ekklesia,’ which means, “called out ones.” Jesus is the one who calls out those from darkness into His marvelous light. Yes, we plant the seeds, but God causes the growth (1 Cor 3:8). The church is made up of those that Christ personally called out from the kingdom of this world and into the kingdom of God.

Now one may say, “Wait a minute! I chose to come to this church and join as a full member.” John 6:44 says, “No one comes to Me unless the Father who sent me draws Him, and I will raise Him up on the last day.” God is calling and drawing and saving His people from their sins and sending them on the road to sanctification.

Why do we need to know this? Because we need to be relieved of the pressure, the burden, and yes, even the pride of saying, “Look what we built!” In Revelation 1, we see Jesus walking in the midst of the seven messengers (likely the pastors of the seven churches mentioned in Revelation), showing the Apostle John that regardless of how the circumstances look inside and outside the church, Jesus is still moving through His church.

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New SBC President Bryant Wright Press Conference

Dr. Bryant Wright, senior pastor of Johnson Ferry Baptist Church in Marietta, GA, is the new president of the Southern Baptist Convention, serving a two-year term (2010-2012).  I confess, I was not familiar with Dr. Wright’s ministry, but after listening to his press conference, I am very optimistic as our convention moves forward.

I was happy at the  tone of the SBC Annual Meeting this year in Orlando.  While there was some disagreement regarding the extent and nature of the recommendations of the Great Commission Resurgence Task Force, I was grateful to Dr. Ronnie Floyd in how flexible he and the 22 members of that committee were in making sure that the Cooperative Program received its due as the primary vehicle for missions giving in the SBC.

The SBC Pastor’s Conference and Annual Meeting is in Phoenix, Arizona next year (June 12-15, 2011).  While I’m not sure about me attending this one, I will certainly be more involved in denominational affairs as we seek to advance His Kingdom.

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Gospel-Gripped Apologetics, Part I

This coming school year at Blue Grass Baptist School, I will be teaching my 11th grade students apologetics.  I will be developing a base curriculum for this class as it moves along from a presuppositional point of view.  In essence, this works to deconstruct the worldview that opposes Christianity and show its problems, but then seeks to help reconstruct a Christian worldview in its place.  I prefer this method because it does not seek to meet people on ‘neutral ground,’ which usually means that I have to put my Bible away to talk to people.  Here’s how I plan to start a portion of the introduction to this class.


Before we ask the ‘why,’ we must understand the ‘what’ and ‘to whom’ of apologetics. What is it? John Frame defines Christian apologetics as that which “seeks to serve God and the church by helping believers to carry out the mandate of 1 Peter 3:15-16. We may define it as the discipline that teaches Christians how to give a reason for their hope.”[1]

The apostle Peter in 1 Peter 3:15-16 says:

15But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear: 16Having a good conscience; that, whereas they speak evil of you, as of evildoers, they may be ashamed that falsely accuse your good conversation in Christ.

Based on this definition, apologetics is seen as an offensive and defensive discipline. As an offensive discipline, the Christian is living a life of one who is set apart to the Lord in this world. Christ has unleashed His people into the world to be “little Christs.” Christians also take a defensive position, making a concentrated and intentional defense of the faith “to every man that asketh you for a reason of the hope that is in you” (3:15). Christians must always be aware that, even though they may not have studied the discipline of apologetics, they are showing the plausibility of Christ and Christianity by their words and actions which radiate what lies in their heart (Matthew 12:33-37).

For Whom is this Study of Apologetics?

Christians wishing to engage in this field must know the audience to which they will engage. Apologetics is for both Christians and non-Christians.

Apologetics is for Christians. “But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts” (3:15a). To “sanctify” means to set apart for God’s holy use. Yet, the Scriptures show that Christians are “sojourners and exiles” in this world who are to “abstain from the passions of the flesh, which wage war against your soul” (1 Peter 2:11). Given all the temptations from within (1 Corinthians 10:12-13) and the philosophies and worldviews assaulting Christians from without (Colossians 2:6-15), Christians need strengthening in the hope the have in Christ.

At some point, Satan will come along to plant a seed of doubt in the believer’s mind, having the Christian wonder if the “reason of the hope” they have is truly reasonable.

  • A Buddhist may seem to show how a life of tranquility and meditation will give the Christian the enlightened peace they need to cope with their troublesome situation.
  • A Muslim can appear to demonstrate faithfulness by their prayers and pilgrimages to Mecca a life of devotion and strong conviction, giving tangible evidence of God’s approval to their spiritual lives.
  • A humanist may seem convincing in the midst of a Christian’s harrowing circumstances in which God appears absent.
  • A Darwinist who appears to have “scientific evidence” on his side may seem convincing over and against those who hold to the origin of creation, calling it a myth and a fantasy.

These few examples help clarify the need for Christians to know what the Scripture teaches so as to strengthen the church. Paul warned the Ephesian church to be aware of the schemes of the devil (Ephesians 6:12), and part of the schemes of the devil is to go after our thinking, our worldview. He aims deceive with philosophies and elementary principles by which he may turn eyes away from the person and work of Christ and the “faith once and for all delivered to the saints” (Jude 3). The area of Christian apologetics aims to help Christians understand what it means for the mind to be given over to the Spirit rather than the flesh or the world (Romans 8:5-8).

Apologetics is for unbelievers. God inspired the Scriptures to show clearly who God is, what He has accomplished in redemptive history, and what He aims to accomplish through His people now. While all people see God’s attributes, giving them no excuse in denying the existence and work of a Creator (Romans 1:18-21), through the Bible God has given us a perspicuous account of His nature, His character, His work—all brought to bear in the centerpiece of the Scriptures, the person of Jesus Christ (Matthew 5:17-18).

The Scriptures serve as a witness to an unbelieving world. As the church lives out God’s will out of loving obedience, the world will see this display. As a result, unbelievers will ask Christians for “a reason for the hope that is within” them. Even in this, they are to respond with “meekness and fear.” Does this mean that Christians are to wither and cower in the face of such questions? Not at all! Meekness means strength under control. ‘Fear’ has to do with reverence before God and before those who may disagree with the conclusions that come from Christian belief.

The apostle Peter informs believers that unbelievers may “speak evil of you, as of evildoers” (3:16). Even though Christians serve a Good God who sent His Good Shepherd to deliver and embody the Good News (i.e., the gospel), an unbelieving world sees the cause of Christ as evil and detrimental to the human race. While many reasons are given by various groups, the last verse of the book of Judges encapsulates this succinctly: “And there was no king in Israel, and everyone did what was right in his own eyes” (Judges 21:25).

Unbelievers do not simply disagree with the rules and commands of God, they disagree with the notion that we are destitute of any goodness that would commend men to him. Ephesians 2:8-9 clearly shows how people are saved not by what they do, they are saved by what God has accomplished by the gift of grace through Jesus Christ. Jesus began His Sermon on the Mount by saying, “Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs in the kingdom of heaven” (Matthew 5:3). Unbelievers may not want to hear of their destitution (even if they are made aware of this “with meekness and fear”), they need to know it but also need to see grace-saved sinners model this with their actions and speech.

(Part II: The ‘Why’ of Apologetics)

[1]John Frame, Apologetics to the Glory of God (Phillipsburg, NJ: P&R Publishing, 1994), 1.

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The Status of the GBTG Blog

As some of you may realize, I haven’t been updating the Gripped by the Gospel blog much of late.  A couple of months ago, I began a blog entitled Leading a Small Kingdom Outpost, which (as the name implied) deals with leadership in various areas of the small church.  As pastor of Boone’s Creek Baptist Church, I am finding that leading a smaller church (around 150 in attendance) and being led by the Lord to make His church great with the resources He has supplied has its own peculiar joys and trials.  So I began that blog as a way to express what those joys and challenges are, and in the process I hope it will provide some encouragement for other small church leaders.

So where does that leave Gripped by the Gospel?  The concept of being gripped by the gospel in all areas of life still appeals to me in a grand scale.  In fact, I have two or three projects in the works based upon this concept:

  • A Gospel-Gripped Church: based on my sermon series from Paul’s Epistle to Titus, I am hoping this will be a book to help us see the centrality of the gospel in all of the church’s life (even in trustee, finance, and business meetings, for example). 
  • A Gospel-Gripped Character:  based on 2 Corinthians 4-5, Paul brings the essence of the character of a Christian to bear in a crystal-clear fashion.
  • Gospel-Gripped Apologetics:  I will be teaching apologetics to 11th grade students at Blue Grass Baptist School or the 2010-2011 academic year.  I look forward not only to covering various religions, cults, and worldviews around today, but helping us to develop an apologetic which goes on the offensive and defensive against skeptics who try to undermine the Bible and the gospel. 

We’ll see were the Lord leads, but I look forward to blogging twice a week in an extended fashion, as well as supplying gospel-gripped quotes.

You can follow me on Twitter ( @mattperrybcbc or @gospelgripped – the latter obviously will be more connected to this blog and ministry).

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“Seven Mistakes I’ve Made in Ministry” by Thom Rainer

Thom Rainer outlines these mistakes in a recent article at Baptist Press (HT: Zach Nielsen):

  1. I would spend more time in the Word and in prayer. I would follow the biblical pattern of the church leaders in Acts 6:4: "But we will devote ourselves to prayer and to the preaching ministry."
  2. I would give my family more time. No one remembers the church committee meetings I missed. My family still remembers those times I was too busy for them.
  3. I would spend more time sharing my faith. Paul told the young pastor Timothy to do the work of an evangelist (2 Timothy 4:5). Those words apply to all pastors today.
  4. I would love the community where I lived more. I would try to live more incarnationally. I would prayerfully seek to see how I could serve the community rather than see it as a population pool of prospects for my church.
  5. I would lead the church to focus more on the nations. I would lead in helping our church grasp that missions is more than just an annual offering.
  6. I would focus on critics less. Most church members have no idea how many criticisms and "suggestions" a pastor gets each week. It can be overwhelming and distracting. Though I would be willing to listen, I would not obsess about every negative comment that was made about me.
  7. I would accept the reality that I can’t be omnipresent. So many people and groups want the presence of the pastor. Saying "no" can be difficult, but it can free the pastor to focus on some of the priorities noted above.
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Jesus’ Poor Evangelism Techniques

When churches and church leaders begin studying methods and techniques of our culture rather than what God has laid out in His Word, even the best intentioned leaders will find themselves straying from God’s will–even when the numbers and results say otherwise.

I grew up on the tail end of a revivalism era where many evangelists would come into a church to conduct “revival services” asking those to “admit they were sinners” and to “come to Jesus” so you will “go to heaven.” Laced with tear-jerking stories and sparse exposition of Scriptures (which the Bible says in Hebrews 4:12 is living and active, sharper than any double-edged sword), many would be emotionally moved. Revival services were considered great successes when great numbers would come.

I wonder how many who subscribe to this would look at Jesus’ evangelism techniques and say, “Wow, Jesus really missed it this time.” I am thinking of the story of the Rich Young Ruler in Matthew 19:16-30. Notice a number of things:

1. Jesus had a willing seeker. “Teacher, what must I do to inherit eternal life?” (Matthew 20:16). If that’s not a willing seeker, I don’t know what is! He clearly had a concern about his spiritual status before God. Jesus had someone ready.

2. Jesus had an influential seeker. This was a rich ruler, meaning he was part of the Sanhedrin, a.k.a. the Jewish Supreme Court. For many in our day, to have such an influential inquirer would be considered a great blessing. To those with questionable motives, this man needs to get into a church and learn the importance of giving to the Lord’s work!

3. Having such a convert would help make some in-roads into the Scribes and Pharisees world. No doubt that this would cause a stir.

But notice what Jesus does:

1. While many would be ready to bring them into the Kingdom right away, Jesus puts up roadblocks! “Why do you ask me about what is good? There is only one who is good. If you would enter life, keep the commandments” (Matthew 20:17 ).

Two things to notice here. First, he puts the inquirer on his heels by questioning his notion of ‘goodness.’ Only God is good, and only God can save. In essence, Jesus is saying, “Are you approaching me because I am good or say good things? Are you attributing to me the trait of being able to give life? Are you saying I am the Son of God — because only God and His Son can do this?”

Secondly, he puts up the barrier of the commandments. “Keep the commandments,” Jesus tells him. If you want life, obey God to the fullest extent! Yet, the ruler questioned which commandments he should obey! Jesus lists off the Second Tablet commandments: “You shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not steal, you shall not bear false witness, honor your father and mother, and you shall love your neighbor as yourself.”

What are the significance of these? These are relational commandments — how one deals with another human being. The Scribes and Pharisees struggled with this. They loved obeying the minutiae of the law, but felt themselves morally superior to the common folk of the day. These were serious issues, given how they were God’s covenant priests who represented Him.

The rich young ruler felt himself capable of entering the Kingdom due to his adequate keeping of the commandments. In other words, he did not see himself as “falling short of the glory of God” (Romans 3:23). He did not see himself as a sinner in need of a Savior. He saw himself as a good man in need of vindication of his good works.

3. Jesus dug deep to the true obstacle of his heart. “If you would be perfect, go, sell what you possess and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, follow me” (Matthew 20:21). Whereas many preachers and evangelists call for an easy-believism, Jesus rejected this notion and told the young man to come face-to-face with the core problem/sin that is the obstacle for eternal life. His possessions were his god — if he is not willing to give up his god, he cannot receive eternal life. If he wants the treasure of eternal life in heaven, yet will not give up the treasure here on earth, he cannot be a part of the Kingdom.

Many in our churches would never say that Jesus’ evangelism techniques were poor, but given how so few model him in showing how inquirers should count the cost of denying themselves and taking up their cross, we wonder why so few who say they are Christians really look very much like everyone else.

Right before dcTalk’s great song from 1995 called “What If I Stumble?”, a preacher (I believe it was Brennan Manning) spoke this: “The greatest single cause of atheism today is Christians, who mouth Jesus with their lips but deny him by their lifestyle. That’s what an unbelieving world simply finds unbelievable.” Maybe its because many Christians have not learned the lesson of denying self and taking up the cross of Christ daily.

May that not be said of us!

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Missions Opportunities for Boone’s Creek Baptist Church

Missions Opportunities for Boone’s Creek Baptist Church (Jun 5, 2010) from Matthew Perry on Vimeo.

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What The Civil War Can Teach a Small Church Leader, Part 2

Yesterday, I posted on two passions I have at once: the small church and the Civil War.  I wondered if I was stretching things a bit by putting these two items together, but I do not think so now.  Both the Union and Confederate side of this war can teach us much about the different factions that may be in the church.

First, take a look at the Union side.  The Union, being the more industrialized portion of the country at that time, use the new technology and methods at their disposal.  Railroads to send supplies and soldiers to certain battles quickly, telegraphs to convey information to various outlets quickly, factories to build munitions and ships and guns quickly—all were being used to a greater degree than were in the South.  In the South, technology was far more limited, which gave them a far more limited ability to communicate.

Next, take a look at the Confederate side.  Whereas the Union looked ahead to innovate, the Confederacy looked back and sought in their Cause to maintain what they felt was a far superior life to the Union.  That superior notion to what always had been actually worked to their detriment.  While the Confederacy (at least at the beginning) had far better war tacticians and strategists on their side and kept the Union at bay at best and running for their collective lives at worst—they were able to stem the tide of the war, even when they would be outnumbered at every point.

Smaller churches may find themselves unwilling to move forward in the warfare to which God has called them.  Methods will change, and we must find ourselves willing to take advantage of particular methods that may change as this culture changes, without compromising the non-negotiables of Scripture, Trinity, Christ’s atoning work, the church, and that Christ will return.  God has shown us in His Word what those non-negotiables are (Acts 2:42-47; 4:32-37), but we must be willing to move ahead with the tools before us, rather than clinging to hard to a time and a way of life gone by. 

(Tomorrow: Lessons from Reconstruction and the Attitude of Change.)

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What the Civil War Can Teach a Small Church Leader

I am an avid, rabid Civil War history buff. It’s in my blood. I’m grateful to my 2nd grade teacher for taking us on a field trip to Appomattox Court House in Appomattox, VA. I was immediately hooked. (I would go into the fact that, as a souvenir, I bought a Confederate flag hat and an actual Confederate flag, but I digress. I was young, and sure didn’t realize the implications that that flag has in many parts of our country and world.)

The Civil War is unlike any other war in which our country has been involved. For one, it’s our war. It’s not the Americans against the Germans or al Qaida or the Taliban. It was American against American where 700,000 of its citizens died and twice that many were injured.


The division between the North and South did not suddenly come in December 1860 when South Carolinians fired upon Fort Sumter. The division could be traced all the way back to our country’s founding. Two of our founding fathers had very different views of how our country should be structured. Alexander Hamilton held to a strong central government, making use of the new methods developed in the Industrial Revolution. Thomas Jefferson, however, saw an agrarian society. The North favored Hamilton’s view, the South favored Jefferson’s.

As more and more states were added to the Union, more and more compromises were brought forth to try and keep an equality between ‘slave’ and ‘free’ states. In the North, slavery died down not because of some moral leaning (although there were abolitionist movements that were strong), but because the North was moving away from agriculture to industry.

The South was a major grower and exporter of cotton, making the South the fifth richest region in the world. Their riches garnered on their plantations were also acquired on the backs of slave labor. Over 35% of the population in the South were slaves. And only one-third of the entire whites in the South were slave owners. Those with money and land (which worked hand-in-hand) would not only be oppressing those who were of a different skin color, but also those who were in a different financial strata as well.

So what made the South secede in 1860-1861? Lots of things, really. But the population disparity over the previous 30 years grew more and more significant. There were only 9 million voters in the entire South, as opposed to 23 million voters in the North. As a result, in the presidential election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected without securing a single vote from the slave states in the South. Believing that with this, the North would begin to enact anti-Southern legislation and having heard that Lincoln was raising troops against the South, the South met them in what is known as the Civil War (or, to some Southerners, the War of Northern Aggression).

What Does This Have to Do With Small Churches?

At the beginning of the war, the aim of the Lincoln Administration was not to free the slaves but to preserve the Union. As the war went on and public opinion grew against Lincoln with numerous defeats at the hands of the Confederacy which was both self-inflicted as well as due to great strategy by Robert E. Lee and Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson of the Army of Northern Virginia. As a result, they began developing new technologies with the railroad as well as the telegraph (among many others) that enabled them to communicate and provide supplies to the troops. They saw the need out of necessity to advance and move forward in order to survive.

The aim of the Jefferson Davis administration in the South was to defend their homes and defend state sovereignty, which unfortunately meant maintaining that institution of slavery which helped them to prosper. They saw the North as a usurper. Lee turned down command of the entire Union army because he could not reconcile the fact that a President of the United States would raise an army to fight its own country. He could not turn from Virginia, his home. Personally against slavery (as was Jackson), they both saw the need to free the slaves, but those in Richmond (the capital) would not go so far for fear of losing their economic status as well as struggling with giving equality with those whom many felt were an inferior race. They felt they needed to remain the same and hearken back

While not everyone will agree with my interpretation of this, I see a parallel. And this will come tomorrow. Stay tuned.

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